¹ 6/2016


Article name, authors, abstract and keyword

Industry development


Science and technologies at the international level

Editorial Article

Abstract: The first Editorial Board meeting of the journal “Science and Technologies of the Pipeline Transport of Oil and Oil Products” became an imported event in the history of the periodical and a milestone signifying a move to a new stage of development. On October 19 the members of the Editorial Board from Russia, CIS countries and abroad, specialists from Transneft R&D, LLC; Transneft, universities, research and design institutes and centers gathered in Moscow in order to discuss current and future activities on publishing of the journal. Local and foreign experts “practically supported” the key topic of the agenda - ways and methods of increasing the rating of the journal and its integration into the international scientific media scene - by a deep scientific discussion. It is in the organization of international professional communication in the pipeline transport field that the Editorial Board see the main goal of the journal of Transneft R&D, LLC at the international level.


Surgutneftegas: the oil heart of Siberia

Editorial Article

Abstract: Vladimir Bogdanov, the CEO of the OJSC “Surgutneftegaz”, the Hero of Labor of the Russian Federation, brought to the company his vision of the principles of doing oil and gas business, industry development, attitude to mineral resources, to the authorities, partners and personnel – of economic and moral priorities. We present an exclusive interview with the honored general of oil industry to the readers of our journal.

Building, operation and maintenance of pipeline systems for oil and oil products storage and transport


The main principles of optimization methodology of technical equipment life-cycle parameters

Oleg V. Aralov a, Ivan V. Buyanov a, Boris N. Mastobayev b, Nikita V. Bereshansky b, Dmitriy V. Byulinkin b

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation
b Ufa State Oil Technical University, 1 Kosmonavtov St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article covers a methodology for the optimization of the life cycle parameters of technological equipment based on the linear dynamic programming method.
This methodology provides for setting and solving of the following tasks:
• controlling of the upgrade of existing technical systems;
• controlling of the operating equipment life cycle;
• optimizing the schedule of design and experimental work on development of radically new technical systems or certain elements of them.
In order to solve the tasks listed above the authors used mathematical statistical and probability models. The models allow defining of the necessary values of the equipment characterizing its life cycle and the application of the results to certain types of products purchased by Transneft.
According to the defined values of the life cycle of the specific modifications of several types of equipment, the need of its updating, discarding, replacement with advanced analogs is determined. In case a decision is to be made on the current modification efficiency, the defined parameters are used to identify the rational operation time period, after which the equipment should be replaced with an advanced analog. The analog development is done in accordance with the research and development schedule (further – R&D). In order to solve this task it is necessary to identify the optimal R&D cost and time for its implementation, during which the analog is made, tested and installed at production sites without any downtime and productivity decrease.

Keywords: technical systems, equipment upgrade, prospective analog, research and development schedule (R&D), principal product types (PPT), PPT list, equipment life cycle, decision making person.



Defining maximal working pressures for main pipelines in extended operation from the results of in-line diagnostics

Yury V. Lisin a, Dmitriy A. Neganov a, Aleksandr A. Sergaev a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: Within the research a comparative analysis of methods used for defining the maximum permissible working pressure for new and long-operated pipelines systems in Russia, US and Canada was carried out.
The authors present the comparison of the specific metal content of main pipelines built according to Russian and foreign standards, perform the analysis of the safety margin structure, and review the current norms for the factor of assurance.
The article contains recommendations for the improvement and adaptation of those methods for various situations – designing of a new pipeline, calculating of the maximum permissible working pressure (both for increasing above the design values and for periodic confirmation as part of pipeline technical condition evaluation).
The authors make a number of proposals on the improvement of the factor of assurance system and use of factual (instead of normative) metal strength characteristics, using which will allow decreasing the specific metal content of new pipelines and increase the maximal permitted working pressure and throughput of operated pipelines.

Keywords: main pipelines, carrying capacity, working capacity, accident risk, safety, safe operation term, maximal permitted working pressure, technical condition evaluation, throughput.



Use of electrically welded pipes as building piles for transport and sea infrastructure

Ivan A. Simbukhov a, Yan V. Vershinin a, Ivan V. Peiganovich b, Georgy R. Shneiderov c, Vitaliy M. Goritzky c, Andrey M. Kulemin c

a OMK, JSC, 28-2, Ozerkovskaya nab., Moscow, 115184, Russian Federation
b VMZ, JSC, 45, Br. Batashevyh St., Vyksa, Nizhegorodskiy reg, 607060, Russian Federation
c Melnikov TzNIIPSK, SJSC, 49 Arhetektora Vlasova St., Moscow, 117393, Russian Federation

Abstract: The authors review the advantages of using electrically welded pipes manufactured by “Vyksyn metallurgical plant” (further - VMZ (part of United Metallurgic Company, JSC - further UMC) as piling foundations at transport and sea infrastructure construction sites. In the framework of the research the fragments of longitudinally electrically welded pipes of 325 and 426 mm diameter made of construction steels manufactured by VMZ, JSC and planned to be used as piles during the reconstruction of the main pipeline Vankor – Purpe of PAO NK Rosneft.

Keywords: electrically welded pipes, building piles, heat treatment, welded seam, residual stresses.



Construction and technological principles of building demountable pipelines from composition materials and ways of assuring their safety

Vladimir V. Sereda a, Aleksey V. Elkin a, Aleksandr V. Elkin a, Aleksey Y. Proshkin b

a FAE 25 State Research Institute of Chemmotology of the Ministry of Defense of Russia, 10, Molodogvardeyskaya St., Moscow, 121467, Russian Federation
b Kompanya YUMA, LLC, 37, Goncharova St., 45, Ul'yanovsk, 432063, Russian Federation

Abstract: The development of construction technological approaches for accident-free operation of pipelines is a task of state importance that requires research in material science, design and technologies. The article covers the review of certain aspects of improving the performance of demountable pipelines (further – DPL), in particular, by assuring during manufacturing the reliability of their linear parts achieved by using composite materials. The shortcomings of existing metal constructions are listed. The authors define methodological approaches to creating demountable pipelines from composition materials physically based on multi-layered constructions and chemically on epoxy polymers with various hardeners. The chemical stability of the proposed materials to aggressive media confirms the possibility of their using for manufacturing lightweight DPLs for the Russian Ministry of Defense. One of the problems in developing the linear part of demountable pipelines is the cracking resistance of complex structures. Static loading might become the cause of cracks formation in fiberglass pipes. Most probable areas of thorough permeability channels in the wall are the boundary moment areas adjacent to pipe fasteners, which is experimentally proven. Decreasing the stress condition of the composition material in those areas is possible by increasing the pipe wall thickness or strength.
One of the main causes complicating the use of fiberglass pipes for dismountable pipelines is the design imperfection of joints. The rational design of joints predetermines the analysis of construction, technological and operation factors influencing their carrying capacity.
The authors give the principal tasks of further research based on the presented methodological approaches to the creation of DPLs made from composite materials.

Keywords: pipeline transport, demountable pipelines, linear part, pipeline reliability, composite materials, cracking resistance, permeability, chemical stability, static loading, construction, technological and operation factors.



Algorithms of technological data quality analysis in SCADA and EMS systems

Marat R. Lukmanov a, Andrey V. Kudritzky a, Ivan A. Babinov a, Ilya S. Kremyansky a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: The actual values of the pumping technological process parameters are the main source of information for providing efficiency and safety in the control of the main pipeline. The authors review the algorithms of automated analysis of data received from SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and EMS (Energy Management System) for improving the validity of factual data and the quality of mathematical modelling and analysis of the technological process and equipment actual parameters. The analysis of technological parameters is performed using several algorithms; each algorithm is aimed at the detection of the signs of invalidation in the sensor signals not detected at the SCADA system level.

Keywords:technological process parameters, data management and control system, SCADA, pump unit, efficiency factor, approximation, algorithm, pipeline.



Study of the heat treatment influence on the rheological characteristics of high-viscosity oils

Pavel V. Fedorov a, Vladimir O. Nekuchaev b, Aleksandr A. Pyustin c

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation
b FGBOU VPO UGTU, 13, Pervomayskaya St., Ukhta, Komi Republic, 169300, Russian Federation
c Transneft-Sever, JSC, 2/1 A.I. Zeryunov Avenue, Ukhta, Komi Republic, 169313, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article is dedicated to the experimental study of the effects of heat treatment on the rheological characteristics of oil mixtures transported via the Usa – Ukhta main pipeline and proposed for transport via the Ukhta - Yaroslavl main pipeline of Transneft – Sever, JSC. The influence of the heat treatment temperature and speed of subsequent cooling on the rheological properties of those mixtures is researched. The time of restoring oil rheological characteristics after heat treatment was investigated, and the optimal treatment parameters within the studied scope were identified. The authors present the dependence charts of oil rheological properties (static shear stress, dynamic shear stress, plastic viscosity) on the heat treatment parameters and the flow curves of untreated and treated oil. From the data obtained in laboratory experiments, conclusions on the dependence of rheological properties of the heat treatment parameters are made.

Keywords: heat treatment, rheological characteristics, high viscosity oils, high pour point oils, heat treatment parameters, cooling speed, setting point.



Soil deformation during monotonic and seismic pipe uplift in liquefiable soil

Siau Chen Chian a, Junkan Wang b, Stuart Kenneth Haigh c, Santana Phani Gopal Madabhushi c

a National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, 117576, Singapore
b Det Norske Veritas BV, UK
c University of Cambridge, UK

Abstract: Uplift of pipelines can take place due to either thermal upheaval buckling or floatation during earthquake-induced soil liquefaction. Despite similar global uplift failure being observed in both cases, the deformation of the soil surrounding the lifted pipe differs. The use of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique showed a wider spatial deformation mechanism occurring during the seismic uplift of the buoyant pipe in liquefied soil as compared to the localised soil movement from monotonic uplift of a pipe in full-scale and centrifuge tests. This is mainly due to the difference in soil conditions between the near and far field regions of the pipe. In the former case, cyclic response of the pipe under horizontal earthquake shaking exerts external stresses onto the adjacent liquefied soil, thereby causing soil dilation to occur near the pipe. A large difference in soil stiffness between near (less liquefied) and far field (fully liquefied) regions is therefore developed which encourages the liquefied soil at far field to fill the expanding void beneath the uplifted pipe. This is unlike the more uniform stiffness of soil at drained condition in the latter case, which thereby induces displacement of soil at near field towards the invert of the pipe.

Keywords: pipe, uplift, floatation, upheaval buckling, liquefaction, PIV


Fire and industrial safety. Occupational safety and health


Methods of engineering protection of trunk pipelines facilities from hazardous natural processes and events

Ivan Y. Lobodenko a, Alena A. Fedorenko a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: The goal of the article was to improve the system for providing accident-free operation of the trunk pipelines (further - TPs) of Transeft JSC operated under difficult natural and climatic conditions. The authors faced the task to draw the composite list of hazardous natural processes and events that can have a negative impact on TPs and review the measures for protecting the pipeline facility from such consequences. In the framework of the research, such list was prepared for the factors, the protection against which is currently provided. It was also found that the actual regulatory documents do not account for a number of currently existing technical solutions for preventing the negative impact of the environment, and that the definition for certain hazardous processes does not exist. The authors have identified the processes and events the effects of which requires the development of TP sites engineering protection with the account of the geological safety threshold. Besides, they formulate a need to create a single regulatory document that sets requirements for the protective system design. The authors point out that the descriptions of engineering solutions used in related areas are also applicable to the system of trunk pipeline transport.
The article is written for the TP system engineering protection research and design specialists and also for a broad scope of specialists performing monitoring of trunk pipeline facilities technical conditions.

Keywords: trunk pipelines, engineering protection, engineering protection methods, hazardous natural processes and events, complicated engineering-geological conditions.




Use of flux cored wire in pipeline construction

Nikolay G. Goncharov a, Dmitry A. Neganov a, Îleg I. Kolesnikov a, Aleksey A. Yushin a, Àrtem V. Sudnik a, Oleg I. Filippov b

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation
b Transneft, 57, Bolshaya Polyanka, Moscow, 119180, Russian Federation

Abstract:The authors consider the topical issues of welding engineering in the construction of pipelines, tanks and metal structures with a view to ensure the reliability of facility operation and reduction of risks associated with the destruction of welded joints. They review welding technologies using flux-cored wires: FCAW wire as well as those for welding with shielding gases or fluxes. The article includes the classification of flux-cored wires, their advantages and disadvantages, prospects for the development of welding technologies using these materials.

Keywords: welding, weld joint, flux cored welding wire, FCAW wire, heat-affected area, welding thermal cycle.



Improvement in manufacturing technology of corner weld joint of vertical steel tank

Ayrat M. Fayrushin a, Marat Z. Yamilev b, Olga V. Chetvertkova b, Aydar I. Bikkinin a

a GFBOU BPO Ufa State Oil Technical University, 1, Kosmonavtov St., Ufa, 450062, Russian Federation
b Branch NIISPTneft, Transneft R&D, LLC, 144/3, Prospect Oktyabrya, Ufa, 450055, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article covers the review of the existing technology of tank corner weld joint assembly. During the assembly and welding of the corner weld, deviations in the assembled walls and edge gap dimensions are visually observed, which may lead to compromised performance. The authors propose solving the corner joint precision manufacturing problems by modifying the edge construction with a reverse bend intended to guarantee minimizing of the gap to normative dimensions.
The authors present the distribution of residual welding stresses and deformations in the corner joint cross-section calculated in the ANSYS software suite using the finite elements method for the proposed and existing design implementations. The obtained results allow us to conclude that further research in the given direction is practicable for integrating of the proposed corner joint manufacturing technology in the production of tanks by sheet assembly. This, in turn, will not only increase the part’s service life significantly, but also decreases the complexity of its manufacturing under assambley conditions.

Keywords: vertical steel tank, stress-strain state, corner joint.


Materials and equipment


Experimental research of gas and liquid mixtures transport in production pipelines

Stanislav G. Bazhaikin a, Raul R. Husainov a, Gizar R. Muhametshin b

a Branch NIISPTneft, Transneft R&D, LLC, 144/3, Prospect Oktyabrya, Ufa, 450055, Russian Federation
b Bashneft-dobycha, LLC, 30-1, Karla Marksa St., Ufa, 450077, Russian Federation

Abstract: The analysis of actions on oil and gas recovery on-site makes it possible to conclude that one of the most perspective methods is pumping of gas-liquid mixture along one pipeline by twin-screw pumps. However, the practice of the use of twin-screw pumps on-site often reveals the wrong choice of units. It leads to unreasonably high pressure in the head of the pipeline, to the elevated vibration, heating of the pump and its early breakage.
The reliability and efficiency of the system of gas-liquid mixture gathering depends on the correct definition of the system parameters and its correct design and assembly.
The cross-country terrain can have an essential impact on the movement of gas-liquid mixture in the pipeline and cause its losses. Under such conditions of transportation, it is necessary to prevent the loss of water on downhill areas (it is possible when the Froude number is not less than six) and gas on elevations.

Keywords: oil gas, well, pipeline, twin-screw pump, gas-liquid mixture, pressure.


Economics and management


Practice of state regulation of the subjects of natural monopolies: transition to system approach whith the account of economical growth prospects

Pavel Y. Serikov a

a Transneft, 57, Bolshaya Polyanka, Moscow, 119180, Russian Federation

Abstract: The author reviews the practice of state regulation of the subjects of natural monopolies, use of both price and administrative regulation as well as the consequences of “frozen tariffs” policy.
It is demonstrated that during the twenty-years history of the state regulation of natural monopolies its “balance point” has shifted from price methods to administrative methods. The author believes that the policy of limiting tariffs for the services of natural monopolies is leading the national economy into an “investment abyss”.
He proposes to return to the tax profit relief that the subjects of natural monopolies could use the means received for investments. Besides, it is necessary to transfer to the system regulation based on economically substantiated decisions and the balance of state interests (budget needs), subjects of natural monopolies (availability of the necessary tariff means including for investments) and service consumers (affordability of goods or services) with the account of the need to lead the national economy to the path of long-term economic growth.

Keywords: state regulation, natural monopoly subjects, investments, tariff policy in relation to natural monopolies


Technical regulation (standardization, conformity assessment)


Analysis of the legislation systems of Canada and the USA, in the field of transportation of liquid gaseous hydrocarbons

Valeriy. I. Salygin a, Igbal A. Guliyev a, Igor I. Litvinyuk a

a International Institute of Energy Policy and Diplomatics of Moscow State Institute for International Relations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, 76, Prospect Vernadskogo, Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation

Abstract: Comparative legislative analysis is the key element in the process of the improvement of the national legislation. The authors describe certain gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons pipeline transportation aspects in Canada and US, and give the analysis of these countries’ legislations comparing them with the norms of the Russian law.
This authors touch upon the specifics of pipelines passing through the territory of big cities and other human settlements; and requirements to the composition of trunk pipelines, their placement, their equipment and systems. These are basic aspects from the point of view of legal regulation and environmental and industrial safety. The comparative legal analysis revealed the disadvantages and advantages of Russian legislation on hydrocarbon transportation and made it possible to provide recommendations how to improve the current national legal system.
The research was carried out using the following methods: deductive, inductive, formalization method, abstraction, synthesis analogies, and the method of comparative legal analysis.

Keywords: foreign legislation, Canada, USA, pipeline transport, crude oil, oil products, standardization, technical regulation, state regulation.


Human resource management


Professional competence criteria is an actual topic in pipeline industry

John Tiratsoo a

a Tiratsoo Technical, PO Box 21, Beaconsfield, HP9 1NS, UK

Abstract: In the continuation of the discussion of the professional competency of pipeline engineers, the member of the Editorial Board of the journal John Tiratsoo tells about the activities of the international Qualification Council organized with the participation of experts from Canada, US and Singapore. The author touches upon the issues of the powers of this body and the practical use of its activity for the specialists of the sector.


Modern approaches to the development of drafts of professional standards based on structural decomposition and graphic visualization of professional activity indicators

Igor V. Lyamnkin a, Dmitry A. Bovtunov a

a Transneft, 57, Bolshaya Polyanka, Moscow, 119180, Russian Federation

Abstract: The authors review new approaches to the development of the drafts of professional standards (further - PSs) based on the structural-functional decomposition of production processes (business processes) and their interaction with the worker’s professional activity indicators. These indicators provide for the technological sequence of operations on the transformation of raw materials, information and other resources into ready product (result, service etc.) with required parameters. The authors also describe concept of the development of PS brief layout model based on the graphic visualization of the professional activity indicators, the need and efficiency of their use together with the PS classic layout and the prospects of its further integration into the system of professional qualifications.

Keywords: professional standard, type of professional activity, production process, business process, technological operation, labor action, labor function, process-functional map, structural decomposition, graphic visualization, PS brief layout model, mutual integration, the system of professional qualifications, sectorial frame of qualifications, council on professional qualifications.


Law enforcement and safety


Labor contract in the system of the legal regulation of corporate relations

Aleksandr A. Nikiforov a, Anna V. Zvyagina a

a Chernomortransneft, JSC, Sheskharis, Novorossiysk, Krasnodar Territory, 353911, Russian Federation

Abstract: As recent as ten years ago in the Russian legal system, the possibility of concluding labor contracts based on the foreign practice of Shareholders Agreements used to cause disagreements at the level of general civil law principles governing the freedom of the implementation of non-defined contracts. Since such agreements have been and remain effective instruments for the implementation of large-scale projects (as a rule with foreign participation), the documents were signed in practice, but were subject to foreign norms and jurisdictions.
However, in 2008–2009 laws on corporations (Federal law of 12.26.1995 No 208-FZ “On joint stock companies” (further – Law No 208-FZ) and Federal law of 02.08.1998 No 14-FZ “On limited liability companies” (further – Law No 14-FZ)) were amended to allow participants of limited liability companies to conclude contracts on exercising company member rights (p. 3 article. 8 of Law No 14-FZ), and shareholders to conclude shareholder agreements (p. 32.1 of Law No ¹ 208-FZ). It looked like the aim of the new revision of the Russian Federation Civil Code (further - CC) was to unite the provisions of the laws mentioned above under the single principle of “corporate contract” (which, actually, can be concluded only in corporations) and clear up several aspects. It is quite interesting that the Civil Code and the agreement on the establishment of a corporation subject to the law on corporate agreement (although the requirements of special legislation have the priority).
In such agreement the parties (all or a part) agree on certain actions (the law does not include a full list) on exercising their corporate rights. There exist a direct prohibition regarding mentioning in the agreement the participants’ obligation to follow the instructions of the company’s governing bodies (i.e. the participants may not be subjugated to the decisions of the management) or to form governing bodies in a certain composition.
The article includes the analysis of the provisions of the Russian Federation CC on corporate agreement. The authors evaluate current requirements to the content of such contract, the composition of its parties, and the aims of its conclusion. They also point to the discrepancy of the Russian Federation CC and special normative acts on the regulation of relations between the parties of a corporate deal.
Beyond any doubt most of the changes recently introduced to the Russian Federation CC merit approval, but a number of novelties raise questions. In this respect, those norms require further elaboration and itemization at the corporate legislation level.

Keywords: shareholders’ agreement, corporate relations, shareholders’ right, corporation, corporate law, labor contract, corporate governance, source of corporate law, law-making treaty.