Vol. 7 2, 2017


Article name, authors, abstract and keyword

Industry development


Capital of future generations: save and increase

Valentin N. Komaritsa a, Natalya N. Sukhorukova a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: V. I. Ott is the First Deputy Minister of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation in 1996-1998, Honorary Oil Worker, participant of the largest projects on the development of oil and gas fields and construction of oilfield facilities in Russia and abroad. His career biography includes work on the oil fields of the Samara, Western Siberia, and Kazakhstan. He directly participated in reforming of the Russian oil industry after the liquidation of the USSR. Such high level specialists opinion is a view from the height of professional and life experience. We asked Viktor Ioganesovich about his vision of the current situation in the domestic oil industry.

The strength and durability of pipe steels


Research of changes of pipeline metal properties during operation: summary of results and prospective developments of Ufa scolarly tradition

Yury V. Lisin a, Dmitriy A. Neganov a, Vitaly I. Surikov a, Kabir M. Gumerov b

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation
b STC Transneft R&D, LLC, 144/3, Prospect Oktyabrya, Ufa, 450055, Russian Federation

Abstract: Provision of high reliability and safety of pipeline systems is a major task in the oil and gas industry and its solution requires careful study and identification of possible causes and mechanisms of fracture propagation. One of the little-studied processes is, in particular, the change of mechanical properties of the pipes metal. Despite a number of studies carried out in this sphere, there are still a lot of questions about the influence and consideration of this phenomenon during long-term operation of the pipelines.
An overview of several studies in the pipe metal aging area is given in the article. In particular, there are considered results made by representatives of Ufa scolarly tradition in the field, which make it possible to establish a change in steel mechanical characteristics during a long operation of pipelines, the so called pipe metal aging. Two main ways of the metal characteristics degradation are specified, i.e. a strain aging and hydrogen absorption. Under operating conditions of the underground pipelines, both these phenomena lead to virtually identical results, although in different ways: the pipes metal gradually loses its plastic properties, embrittles and cracks. These phenomena were considered at the level of the microstructure of metals that allows not only understanding the development of degradation processes, but also proposing of the methods for their inhibition. There are also presented works of Ufa scholarly tradition aimed at creating a physical model of the pipelines stress corrosion cracking, which is nowadays one of the main causes of metal fracture at the pipeline mains; though it is unreasonably low studied in the oil pipeline transportation system.

Keywords: main pipeline, metal aging, strain aging, embrittlement, hydrogen absorption, cracking, stress corrosion cracking, dislocation, impact strength.



Study of the construction of hydraulic stands for testing of tubular products

Dmitry A. Neganov a, Evgeny P. Studenov a, Sergey V. Skorodumov a, Vladislav A. Solovyev b

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation
b Transneft Diascan, JSC, 7 Kuybysheva Str., Lukhovitsy, Moscow Region, 140501, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article summarizes the international and Russian experience in the development and operation of devices for full-scale testing of pipes and also discusses the requirements for a new design of the devices for hydraulic testing of pipes under combined loading with internal pressure and bending.
Also, the article summarizes typical schemes of pipe loading in the process of testing and variants of applying loads in time.
The analysis of the requirements for the test devices includes consideration of the main components of the hydraulic installation for cyclic pressure loading and the device for applying the bending moment as well as requirements for the placement of test devices equipment.
The results of the analysis demonstrate that the construction of a new test devices will allow testing the entire range of pipes in use with the purpose of assigning actual reliability values and safe service periods, introducing correction factors into design models (in case of non-compliance of estimated and actual values), determining maintenance and repair schedules.


Building, operation and maintenance of pipeline systems for oil and oil products storage and transport


Mixture distribution for serial transfer of petroleum products

Mikhail V. Lurie a, Fedor V. Timofeev b, Sergey V. Sereda b

a Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), 65 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
b Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article provides theoretical provisions to calculate the most efficient way for immediate distribution of petroleum product mixtures generated during their serial transfer by means of direct contacting. The consequence of a serial transfer of petroleum products be means of direct contacting is the generation of mixture as a result of convection and turbulence mixing of transferred fluids. In order to eliminate losses due to occurrence of non-commodity mixtures, they are distributed to petroleum products they are formed of. Hence, the so called mixture distribution is made. The distribution shall be made in such a way, that the quality level of commodity petroleum products corresponds to the established regulatory values after the mixture is completely distributed into such petroleum products. A way of immediate distribution was proposed to reduce temporal and production losses for mixture distribution, by means of directing the mixture directly to vessels with commodity oil products, without their pre-transfer to mixture vessels. The implementation of the method stipulates serial calculation of base ratio of petroleum products in the mixture and possible amounts of its distribution to the vessels with petroleum products. The calculations are made with taking in account limited accepted concentration for the content of one mineral in another one. The article considers the procedure of calculating two possible options of an immediate distribution: with a uniform mixture supply to several vessels and with a differentiated mixture supply to connected vessels. The second method is characteristic of vessels with a different level of petroleum product content.

Keywords: petroleum products, series pumping, gasoline, diesel fuel, limited accepted concentrations, immediate mixture distribution.



Computer simulation of the formation process for a large-diameter pipe stock

Dmitry A. Neganov a, Grigoriy V. Nesterov a, Andrey A. Bogach a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: The purpose of the work is to define residual stresses generated in metal of large-diameter pipes after the source sheet is bent. Ways of forming the pipe stocks used at the Russian plants were analyzed. A computer simulation of the pipe formation process was made via finite element method for 1,220 mm pipes of K56 strength class made by means of step forming, roller forming and press forming. Stresses in the metal were defined for each phase of the sheet billet deformation and for expansion. A connection between metal stressed state and molding parameters was analyzed in the course of simulation. An impact on molding procedures on the generation of areas with increased residual stress was established, and their position along the pipe was found. The maximum local residual stresses appear in the area of bending sides of the sheet billet, where they may reach up to 22 % of the regulated limit of the yield strength.

Keywords: pipe billet, forming, residual stresses, finite elements method.



Analysis of changes in transient processes occurring in the main pipeline as a result of anti-turbulence additive injection

Vladimir V. Zholobov a, Dmitry I. Varybok a, Denis V. Egorov a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: A water hammer phenomenon occurs at a rapid change in the flow rate of transported media. An impact wave generated at the flow rate change point is spread along the pipeline, interacts with the equipment and damps according to a certain law. The numeric parametric calculations of wave processes to construct diagrams of the maximum pressure take much time and effort. The sufficient data volume obtained during the numeric calculation with differential diagrams mostly is not used. The purpose of this work is to find an analytical way to built maximum pressure envelope.
The implementation of the fluid movement mode is stipulated at the generation stage after the impact wave, if the initial mode is arbitrary. It is established that the pressure drop amplitude damping task has an apparent new analytical solution in low compressed elastic medium.
The parametric analysis has shown that this solution is more advantageous with an arbitrary combination of mode before and after the impact wave, if compared with available functions in terms of accuracy of the wave amplitude representation. Moreover, it makes it possible to obtain a methods and formulae of a mutual re-calculation of parameters of the wave in medium, either containing anti-turbulence additives (ATA) or not. A parametric analysis of ATA impact of the water hammer wave amplitude is carried out on the basis of these formulae. It is proved that the intensity of wave processes in media with ATA is higher with other conditions being equal. The circumstance dictates the necessity to adjust the protections for such media. There is built an approximate analytical function for pressure distribution after the pressure drop. Combining it with the ratio for the wave amplitude and the recalculation formulae enables analytical building the maximum pressure envelope. When making numerous parametric calculations, the application of the approach presented provides exclusion on the basis of a preliminary analysis of many options, which are of no interest in the field of safe operation of pipelines.

Keywords: wave amplitude, impact pressure, damping, additive, analytical solution, recalculation formulae



Mechanical behavior of the pipe squeezed by other object based on numerical simulation

Jie Zhang a, Han Zhang a

a School of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610500, China

Abstract: Mechanical damage of the pipe squeezed by other object is one of the important failure modes for oil and gas pipes. Mechanical behavior of a pipe squeezed by other objects was investigated by numerical simulation. Effects of initial indentation depth and diameter-thick ratio on the mechanical behavior of the dented pipe were studied. The results show that the squeezing force, high stress area and the maximum stress increase in the uploading process. In the unloading process, there is a great change for the stress distribution, and elastic deformation recovery occurs in this process. Crosssection of the middle plane is flatted. The deformation of the pipe in the vertical plane is V-shape. In the former stage, the maximum equivalent plastic strain appears on the center part of the pipe. There are two maximum equivalent plastic strain areas with the increasing of the objects displacement. In the unloading process, the equivalent plastic strain increase. With the increasing of the initial indentation depth, the resilient rate of the pipe dent decreases, but maximum equivalent plastic strain increases. With the increasing of the diameterthick ratio, the resilient rate increases but the maximum equivalent plastic strain decreases.

Keywords: Pipe, numerical simulation, plastic deformation, stress, resilient rate.



Method of determining moisture content of oil for transportation by pipeline

Boris N. Antipov a

a Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), 65 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation

Abstract: A method of determining moisture content of oil transported through the pipeline, using waves of microwave and ultrasound. A method for determination of mass concentration of oil and water in gas-saturated water-oil mixture.

Keywords: water content of oil, microwaves



The question of assessing the mutual influence of compactly located local resistances

Valery Y. Moretskiy a, Vladimir V. Zholobov a, Dmitry I. Varybok a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: Clarifications on the methodological approach to the description of the effect of the location of local resistance to their integral hydraulic resistance.


Corrosion protection


Research of properties of anti-corrosion coatings applied under sub-zero temperature

Aleksandr M. Efremov a, Aleksey V. Makarenko b, Irina O. Osina b

a Transneft, 57, Bolshaya Polyanka, Moscow, 119180, Russian Federation
b Transneft R&D LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Fedration

Abstract: Most of the pipelines for oil and oil products of Transneft PJSC are located in the Extreme North areas and areas considered equal to them. The time period when it is possible to apply anti-corrosion coatings (AC) at the facilities of pipeline transportation is very short at the said regions: it lasts from 3 to 5 months only. Hence, there is a pressing task of finding and testing materials which could be applied under sub-zero air temperature with a condition of an obligatory preservation of AC lifetime. Nature and laboratory tests of AC systems provided by three domestic manufacturers were carried out in order to define a possibility to apply AC under ambient sub-zero temperatures and obtain coatings meeting the requirements of Transneft regulatory documents. The results of these nature and laboratory tests show that the application of AC under specified sub-zero ambient temperature does not provide anti-corrosion protection of external steel surfaces of vessels, metal structures, pipelines and equipment during a required service life. Hence, the extension of work performance time for AC application within the regions of the Extreme North is only possible by arrangement of heated shelters maintaining the ambient temperature of at least 5 during work performance.

Keywords: Anti-corrosion coating, application of anti-corrosion coatings under low temperature



Experience in designing of corrosion protection of underground pipelines at ORS sites

Andrey A. Prokhorov a, Valery V. Radchenko a, Ruslan A. Zhukov a

a Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC), JSC, 40, building 4, B. Ordynka Str., Moscow, 119017, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article presents the experience in designing of electrochemical corrosion protection (ECCP) at the sites of oil refining stations (ORS) of the Caspian Pipeline Consortium-R (CPC-R), JSC. It is noted that the method that is adopted in Russia for calculation of the protective current in accordance with the minimum current density does not take into account its part that branches off into other grounded metal structures on the site, shielding of the protective current by the grounding system at the ORS, and material of the grounding conductors. This, in its turn, leads to an underestimated value of the design current and, as a result, to insufficient protection of the industrial and auxiliary pipelines at the ORS.
It is concluded that there is a necessity to revise the methods for calculation of the protective current on the ORS sites, clarification of the calculation methods for calculating the soil conductivity at the site with the help of the VES method, as well as the methods for development of recommendations for the joint use of the distributed and concentrated anode groundings and extended EP on the sites.

Keywords: protective current, polarization potential, cathodic protection station, specific conductivity of soil


Materials and equipment


Identification of the fluid type when flooding the CI wells on a linear section of pipelines

Vladimir V. Banko a, Ivan I. Klyauta a

a Transneft Baltic, LLC, 11A, Arsenalnaya Embankment,St. Petersburg, 195009, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article analyzes organizational and technical actions when flooding the pressure tap wells on a linear section of the main pipelines. At present, only the fact of flooding is registered with fluid level indicators and the corresponding information is transferred to the control stations by means of telemechanics. It is proposed to improve the existing system for well flooding detection by expanding it with the help of the devices for identification of the surface layer fill fluid type.
The article formulates general requirements for the fluid type identification device and its operation principle, which is based on the use of the non-contact sounding method to determine the characteristic physical parameters of the fluids, the well cavity is filled with. This article considers the electrical and optical properties of oil and oil products, characterized by the dielectric constant and index of ultraviolet induced fluorescence, as image parameters. It also analyzes existing methods and modern devices for non-contact measurement of fluid parameters in order to use this information for development of the sensor for fluid type identification.
The introduction of this proposal will expand functional capabilities of the control and measuring equipment of the linear telemechanics. The information, obtained when determining the fluid type in the CI well, will allow rapid and optimal planning of the necessary means and measures to eliminate the identified violations on the main pipelines, which is especially important when increasing the length of the operated oil pipelines, as well as when there is a need to reduce unit costs.

Keywords: Flooding of CI wells, fluid type identification, dielectric permittivity measurement, ultraviolet induced fluorescence, fluorescence detector of oil contamination, lidar of oil contamination.



Simulation of the oil burning process with the admixture of bottom water in fire-tube boilers

Pavel V. Roslyakov a, Yury V. Proskurin b, Vitaly A. Kozhevnikov c

a National Research University Moscow Power Engineering Institute, 14, Krasnokazarmennaya Str., Moscow, 111250, Russian Federation
b Transneft, 57, Bolshaya Polyanka, Moscow, 119180, Russian Federation
c Transneft R&D LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Fedration

Abstract: The problem of utilizing the water, contaminated with oil products, is topical for the fuel and energy complex enterprises, engaged in production, refining, and transportation of crude oil and oil products. The use of special cleaning equipment is advisable for large energy and industrial facilities. An alternative form of the contaminated water utilization is its thermal decontamination by means of feeding it into the boiler furnace or hearth in various ways.
The availability of fire-tube boilers at many enterprises of the Transneft system dictates the need to investigate the possibility of thermal utilization of the water contaminated with oil products, in the furnaces of such boilers. The boiler KV-GM-2.0 with the heat power of 2 Mwatt was the object of the study. A supercharged burner, developed at NRU MPEI, was considered as a burner unit for feeding fuel oil.
The numerical studies were carried out with the help of the computer simulation of the processes of fuel oil pulverization, mixing, ignition, and burning out of fuel, as well as formation of nitrogen oxides with the help of ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamics software with the account of radiation and convective heat transfer. The analysis of the results of numerical experiments on the joint supply of crude oil and bottom water showed that the thermal decontamination of the contaminated water in fire-tube boilers should be limited by the water consumption of no more than 35% in the fuel volume, taking into account the initial caloric value of the fuel. The main reasons for this are the oil droplets on the fire tube walls, elongation of the combustion process, and increase in the emission of nitrogen oxides. The further increase in the proportion of the contaminated water in the fuel will reduce the stability of the combustion process.
The article considers a model of the crude oil burning process with the admixture of bottom water, describes the development of a flare in the fire-tube boilers, and presents conclusions about the possibility and consequences of using bottom water with an assessment of the composition of waste gases.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, bottom water utilization, burner units, hot water boilers, oil products, oil, wastes.




Recent innovations in pipeline seam weld integrity assessment

Ted L Anderson a

a Team Industrial Services, Denver, Colorado, USA

Abstract: The integrity of pipelines with longitudinal seam welds has received renewed interest by operators and regulators, due primarily to a number of high-profile incidents. Most operators and pipeline integrity consultants have assessed seam weld flaws with methodologies that have changed very little over the past 30 years. However, the status quo is no longer viable, given the heightened public scrutiny and regulatory pressure.
This paper presents a number of recent innovations in assessment technology that can lead to improved reliability and a more optimal use of finite integrity budgets.

Keywords: Integrity of pipelines, longitudinal seam welds, conservative flaw assessment model, advanced assessment, ln-sec model, finite element parametric study, pressure cycle fatigue analysis.


Professional education


Practice of developing professional standards for specialties being in demand within Transneft system organizations

Yury V. Lisin a, Yulia V. Alekseevicheva a, Irina S. Simarova a, Elena S. Perevedentseva a

a Transneft R&D LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Fedration

Abstract: Transneft R&D LLC actively participates in the process of forming the National qualification system by developing professional standards. in 2016 the Institute specialists jointly with the Common-Russian Alliance of Employers Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs (RUIE) developed four professional standard drafts which are now to be approved by the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation. Moreover, in 2017 Transneft R&D LLC has completed the development of four professional standards for specialties being in demand within Transneft system organizations. Their drafts are now also submitted for approval to the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation.
The article presents the model for development of professional standards built with the use of functional modeling methods. The model describes the structure and logical connections between the functions, defines the information and resources required to implement the business process described or those modified during its implementation. The model implementation practice is described on the basis of developing drafts of professional standards for specialties being in demand within Transneft PJSC: Expert in diagnostics of oil and oil products main pipeline equipment, Operational specialist for oil product pumping plant at the oil and oil products main pipeline, Oil and oil products main pipeline operation worker and Operator of the oil product pumping plant at the oil and oil products main pipeline.

Keywords: professional standard, professional activity type, functional chart, professional activity matrix, business process, labor function, labor action, committee for professional qualifications, qualification assessment


Overview of scientific periodicals


Specialized foreign journals: Abstracts of relevant articles

Valentin N. Komaritsa a, Natalya N. Sukhorukova a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: This issue presents a brief overview of two scientific journals, indexed by the Scopus database: Journal of Pipeline Engineering and Journal of Pipeline Systems Engineering and Practice. We selected several articles from each publication that may be of interest for domestic specialists.