Article name, authors, abstract and keyword

Industry development


Statesmanship is the foundation of the oil industry

Editorial Article

Abstract: The state approach to the oil industry management is its only reliable and secure basement, believes V. Z. Garipov, the Deputy Minister of Fuel and Energy of the Russian Federation in 19962001. He strongly maintains his attitude towards return of the key and efficient levers of influence to the state and insists on the absolute priority of national interests and consolidation of all the resources in this sense.


Transneft R&D, LLC and the oil and gas universities started the development of exemplary basic educational programs

Editorial Article

Abstract: Transneft R&D, LLC the Federal teaching union in higher education UGSN 21.00.00 Applied geology, mining, oil and gas and geodesy and Russian oil and gas universities agreed to develop exemplary basic educational programs of preparation of bachelors and masters in the direction Oil and Gas business in the pipeline transportation of petroleum and petroleum products.

Young scientists and specialists


System conception in the development of measures on prevention and localization of accident consequences on oil pipelines in the arctic zone of Russian Federation

Sergey A. Polovkov a, Roman Y. Shestakov a, Ilmar R. Aysmatullin a, Vladislav N. Slepnev a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: Maintenance of trunk pipelines in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation is subject to increased requirements for prevention and response measures in case of technogenic emergencies, particularly oil spills. Due to weak resistance of Arctic soil under external impact and possible appearance of irreversible processes, it is necessary to take measures in order to minimize impact on the environment. Modeling of oil spills taking into consideration relief and results of risk assessment of putting into operation trunk pipeline called ZapolyariePS Purpe of Transneft, JSC is analyzed in the article. This approach helps to identify most dangerous parts of trunk pipeline with high probability of damage and oil spill as a result; assess the volume of oil spills, develop computer model based on the relief data to determine more accurately zones of oil distribution and territory pollution. The Arctic zone of the Russian Federation was chosen for modeling purposes. Arctic nature is very sensitive to anthropogenic impact and its self-healing may last for a long period of time. In case of emergency oil spill, it necessary to localize and liquidate oil, recultivate polluted soil, which can force negative soil processes, such as erosion, slope movements of soil and swamping. These negative processes can lead to new damage of pipelines and additional significant expenses on the recovery of environment. In Arctic conditions, development of new and adaptation of existing methods and technologies of localization and cleaning of oil spills with minimal impact on the environment and results of this impact, first of all on soil, are required. That is why quick cleaning of an oil spill and minimization of its area is most acute for Arctic zone. Results of damage risk assessment, results of modeling oil spill with determination of outmost from pipeline areas of pollution are presented in the article. Sequence of actions, presented in the article, helps to form complex approach to forecasting accidents and their implications on the trunk pipeline in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation using modern software to gain as realistic picture as possible.

Keywords: ArcGIS, the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, Zapolyarie PS Purpe, trunk pipeline, permanently frozen ground, modeling, Transneft, JSC, risk assessment, oil spill.


The strength and durability of pipe steels


Comprehensive analysis of the pipelines safety and basic mechanical properties of the pipe steels

Yury V. Lisin a, Nikolay A. Makhutov a, Dmitry A. Neganov a, Viktor M. Varshitskiy a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: Herein we present the service strength analysis of a pipeline under working stress and its limits based on the quantitative determination of a safety margin for yield strength and tensile strength and prevailing for decades domestic and foreign practice. It is the new scientific basis for design analysis and justification of a safety margin with the quantitative accounting of all major operational, technological, and structural factors, including ageing effect, degradation of pipe steels and pipes, forming and development of critical damages and defects (including corrosion and erosion).

Keywords: design stress, allowable stresses, factor of safety, reliability factor, strength theory, mode of loading, endurance, service life, ageing, crack growth resistance, survivability.



Assessment of vintage girth welds and challenges to ILI tools

Yong-Yi Wang a, Jing Ma a, Satish S. Kulkarni a

a Center for Reliable Energy Systems, 5960 Venture Dr., Suite B, Dublin, OH 43017, USA

Abstract: A large portion of pipelines in the United States were installed prior to the enactment of federal regulations in 1970s. The girth welds of these pipelines were not 100% non-destructively inspected at the time of construction. These welds may contain flaws that could lead to occasional failures when additional stresses beyond those stresses under normal operation conditions are present. Recent accidents associated with vintage pipelines elevate the public attention and highlight the needs of integrity management of these pipelines. Due to the low frequency and high consequence of those failures, an effective management plan is necessary to direct the limited resources to the welds of the highest potential risk. Assessment of vintage girth welds on the basis of fitness-for-service (FFS) principles is the best rational approach to develop integrity management practice. Although general procedures for the FFS assessment of welds are well established, enhancement to these procedures may be necessary to take into account the unique features of vintage girth welds. In addition, the values of necessary input parameters for the FFS assessment, such as applied stress, flaw size, and material properties are often not available. Elements necessary for the enhancement of FFS procedures are explored in this paper. Challenges of estimating input parameters are examined. The limits and potentials of various ILI tools in detecting and characterizing girth weld flaws are presented based on the fundamental principles of tools and published data.

Keywords: pipeline, integrity management, vintage girth weld, fitness-forservice, in-line inspection, and ILI tools.


Building, operation and maintenance of pipeline systems for oil and oil products storage and transport


Towards the issue of the complex approach to calculation of the operational efficiency of the main oil pipeline and main pipeline pumping units

Pavel A. Revel-Muroz a

a Transneft, 57, Bolshaya Polyanka, Moscow, 119180, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article presents the complex methodology for calculation of the efficiency factor (EF) of the oil pipeline transportation facilities. The determination of the operational efficiency of the main pipeline (MP) is considered when carrying out the complex analysis of the operational efficiency of the technological sections (TS). The MP TS operational efficiency is calculated on the basis of the MP TS EP relative value for the analyzed period of time (or group of modes). The estimation of the operational efficiency of the main pipeline oil pumping unit (MPOPU) is based on obtainment of the actual (operational) characteristics of the MPOPU EF changes during the analyzed month and their comparison to the passport characteristics.

Keywords: main pipeline oil pumping unit, technological section, efficiency factor, EF, energy saving program.



Influence of mutual placement of technological equipment onto hydraulic resistance

Valery Y. Moretskiy a, Vladimir V. Zholobov a, Dmitry I. Varybok a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: The phenomenon of interference occurs when the local resistances are placed in a space-effective manner. The presence of interference results in the fact that the superposition method provides deviation in one or another direction and becomes inapplicable. The OPS industrial pipelines contain sections with the spaceeffective placement of local resistances, in respect to which the phenomenon of interference has not been studied. The purpose of this work: adjustment of the superposition method in order to calculate the overall resistance of the space-effective placement of local resistances.
It is assumed that the full rate profile of the incoming (undeformed) flow, hydraulic resistance factor of a separate subunit, and structural view of the full rate profile, deformed by local resistances, were set. Two boundary-value problems on the flow stabilization on the sections before and after the resistance, represented in the form of the mathematical discontinuity, are formulated. The paper also presents the procedure of search for the approximate analytical solution of these problems, which uses the screw flow theory. The solution result is the path length, on which the stabilized full rate profile (zone of the local resistance influence) and rate profile in the place of potential placement of the second resistance recover.
When determining the individual resistances, two boundary-value problems are again formulated in the zone of mutual influence: in order to find the changed rate profile on the basis of the first and second resistances and the previous procedure of search for the analytical solution is used. The paper presents the design dependencies, as well as the procedure for their application when building and "binding" the solutions on the discontinuity. The presented dependencies and the procedures for their application are used for calculating the individual resistances of separate subunits and the principle of superposition will be true herewith.

Keywords:local hydraulic resistance, flow rate, pressure differential, kinematic viscosity, spiral vortexes, stabilization section, rate profile deformation, boundary-value problem.



Removal of water accumulations from the pipeline with the help of the pumped oil flow

Mikhail V. Lurie a

a Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), 65, Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article deals with the removal of accumulated water from local low points of the pipeline profile by the flow of a fluid (oil or petroleum products). This problem has been repeatedly studied by many authors who were trying to suggest a formula for the calculation of the fluid velocity sufficient to completely remove water from the pipeline. In most cases, such studies were experimental but their results each time turned to be inaccurate and in some cases contradictory. Thus, no formula or generally accepted methods are currently available for calculating the velocity of water removal from the pipeline.
This paper proposes a solution. We have developed a theory to calculate the parameters for the removal of water from a low-profile section of the pipeline that is based on the fundamental laws of mechanics. The paper explains the reasons for the apparent contradictions between theoretical research and experiments. A formula has been proposed for calculating the rate of removal of water in the form of a compact formation - slug. We offer a comparison of calculation results with experimental data.

Keywords: oil, petroleum products, pipeline, profile, ascending and descending sections, accumulation of water, balance of accumulated water, removal of accumulated water, mass balance and momentum equations, critical speed, slug, maximum amount.



The survey of the theory of solutions

Zarif Z. Sharafutdinov a

a Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article deals with the problem of description of oil rheological properties and the factors, which determine the rheology of fluids, from perspective of classical general chemistry. This problem emerged because many experts exaggerate the role of continuum media mechanics and do not take into account its relationship with the chemical properties of its components when solving technical problems on management of the rheological properties and parameters of oil systems. It does not allow achieving the desired effectiveness of the applied technical solutions and slows down the process of finding new ways for development of the methods for managing fluids and dispersions in the oil and gas industry.

Keywords: rheology, oil rheology, oil structure discreteness, rheological models, supramolecular chemistry, supramolecular oil interactions.



About decommissioning of production and transportation of oil: the UK experience

John Tiratsoo a

a Tiratsoo Technical, PO Box 21, Beaconsfield, HP9 1NS, UK

Abstract: The Oil and Gas Authority of the UK published the main strategy of decommissioning of the facilities located on the continental shelf of the North Sea. According to the representatives of the department, today it is clear that this process will have to face considerable difficulties in terms of technology and because of the huge material costs and the duration of the operation (the project is expected to be completed by 2050). Obviously, the priority will be security and protection of the environment from the possible adverse effects related to the upcoming large-scale works. At the same time, it is expected that implementation of this strategy will give a new impetus to the development of innovation, to optimize production costs and staff development.


Pressure wave propagation in multi-layered fiber reinforced polymeric pipelines due to hydraulic hammer

Dimitrios G. Pavlou a

a The University of Stavanger, 4036, Stavanger, Norway

Abstract: A fluid-pipe interaction model for multi-layered fiber reinforced polymeric (FRP) pipelines subjected to hydraulic hammer is presented. Taking into account the flow parameters and the anisotropic elasticity properties of pipes wall, the pressure oscillations and the corresponding speed of the pressure shock due to sudden or fast reduction of discharge of a liquid is determined.

Keywords: FRP pipes, composite materials, wave propagation, hydraulic hammer.


Materials and equipment


Comparative analysis of technical characteristics of the domestic- or foreign-made sulfur content on-stream analyzers

Igor N. Katsal a, Rustam Z. Sunagatullin b, Egor S. Dubovoy b, Nafis N. Khafizov b

a Transneft, 57, Bolshaya Polyanka, Moscow, 119180, Russian Federation
b Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: Accurate and reliable measurements of total sulfur content in an oil flow are critically important both for oil transportation via the system of the main oil pipelines and for controlling oil refining processes. The foreign-made on-stream sulfur content analyzers, the maintenance of which is associated with high costs, are used for these purposes. This article presents an overview of the results of testing of the sulfur content on-stream analyzer prototype carried out in actual operating conditions in the QMU at the facilities of the Transneft.

Keywords: sulfur content on-stream analyzer, analysis method, system of the main oil pipelines, oil compounding, oil quality, laboratory studies.



Structural changes and mastering of the manufacture of an efficient cutting tool for maintenance work on the pipeline

Dmitry A. Barabash a, Evgeny V. Goman a

a Transneft Siberia, JSC, 139 Republiki St., Tyumen, 625048, Russian Federation

Abstract: In order to increase the productivity and reduce the costs during the repair work on the pipeline, and to ensure the stability of product quality, it was decided to develop a cutting tool with replaceable multifaceted hard alloy bits.
Designed in Tyumen mechanical-repair factory, the ring drill, external diameter 131 mm with replaceable multifaceted hard alloy bits (utility model patent obtained in 2015), is the working tool of the cold tie-in device UHV-150, intended for cutting holes in a pipeline under pressure.
Existing ring drills have cutting plates (bits) of highspeed steel of hard alloy fastened to the steel drill body by welding or soldering. The new drill is equipped with hard alloy cutting bits fastened to the body with screws. The new drill does not require resharpening; when the cutting bits are dulled, it suffices to turn them by 180 to bring non-dulled edges into work, or just replace the bits.
The drill construction is simple and easy to manufacture, so the labor cost of production is at least half of the existing versions. The drill is designed in accordance of the cutting theory requirements. A trial batch of the drills has been successfully tested in operating conditions on main oil pipelines.

Keywords: ring drill with replaceable multifaceted hard alloy bits, ring drill.


Corrosion protection


Research of possibility of using metallized sacrificial coatings for corrosion protection of berthing facilities

Oksana Y. Elagina a, Sergey V. Mamonov b, Pavel O. Revin b

a Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), 65, Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

b Transneft R&D, LLC, 47a, Sevastopolskiy prospect, Moscow, 117186, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article considers the possibility of application of the metallized protective coatings (hereinafter referred to as MPC) on the basis of the zinc and aluminium alloys for anticorrosion protection of the piles of the terminal facilities in the zones of full immersion, varying level, and marine atmosphere. The MPCs, applied with the help of the electric arc spraying method, were used in the study. We analyzed each studied MPC structure in its cross-section in order to determine its porosity. The article presents the comparison of the corrosion rates of different MPCs in the zone of full immersion, varying level, and marine atmosphere, obtained on the basis of the results of the laboratory tests. It also describes the methodologies for calculating the MPC corrosion rate in order to predict the coating residual lifetime. The corrosion intensity of different MPCs was analyzed and the coatings with the least corrosion rate in the zone of full immersion, varying level, and marine atmosphere were identified.

Keywords: corrosion protection, berthing facilities, metallized sacrificial coatings, corrosion rate.


Human resource management


The methodology for forming the labor payment expenditures in the organizations of the system Transneft: peculiarities of the economic model for planning the LPB and approaches to automation

Igor V. Lyamnkin a, Nikolay B. Moskovkin a, Dmitry A. Bovtunov a, Yulia P. Mironova a

a Transneft, 57, Bolshaya Polyanka, Moscow, 119180, Russian Federation

Abstract: The article describes basic methods for planning of the labor payment expenditures, essence of the primary planning of the wage fund, peculiarities of the current economic model for budgeting the labor payment fund (LPF), used in the system Transneft, and its main methodological principles and approaches to automation of the budget planning and laboryment accounts.

Keywords: LPF planning elements, main and additional wages, average rate, average wage category, average rate coefficient, hourly (daily, monthly) LPF, multiple-factor combined model, wage factor planning, multidimensional data presentation model, OLAP cubes.